Glossary

Dyscalculia

Dyscalculia is a math learning disorder that makes mathematical reasoning and computation difficult, in spite of adequate education, average or greater intelligence, and proper motivation.

It appears as poor memory for numbers, time, sequences, directions, layouts, and visual-spatial information, as well as a confounding inability to manage these things.

 

Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a learning disorder that involves difficulty reading due to problems identifying speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words (decoding). Also called reading disability, dyslexia affects areas of the brain that process language.

ADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is a condition that can make it hard for a person to sit still, control behavior, and pay attention. These difficulties usually begin before the person is 7 years old. However, these behaviors may not be noticed until the child is older.

Doctors do not know just what causes AD/HD. However, researchers who study the brain are coming closer to understanding what may cause AD/HD. They believe that some people with AD/HD do not have enough of certain chemicals (called neurotransmitters) in their brain. These chemicals help the brain control behavior.

 

Responsible Decision-Making

The ability to make constructive and healthy choices about personal behavior and social interactions. To be aware of and responsive to potential consequences.

 

Relationship Skills

The ability to create and maintain healthy relationships including with those from different backgrounds. To communicate with others, listen, cooperate, and stand up to negative pressure. To work through conflict productively.

 

Social Awareness

The ability to relate to and empathize with others including those with backgrounds different than yours. The ability to understand and operate within ethical norms.

 

Self-Management

To control one’s emotions, thoughts and behaviors, manage stress and control impulses, and be self-motivated.

 

Self-Awareness

Recognizing one’s emotions, thoughts, and values. The ability to know your strengths and weaknesses and have self-confidence.

Empathy

Empathy is the ability to recognize, understand, and share the thoughts and feelings of another person, animal, or fictional character. Developing empathy is crucial for establishing relationships and behaving compassionately. It involves experiencing another person’s point of view, rather than just one’s own, and enables prosocial or helping behaviors that come from within, rather than being forced.

Visual Impairments

There is a wide spectrum of the severity of visual impairments. An individual with a visual impairment may be born with it while others may acquire a visual impairment later in life. Whether blind or with limited sight of some sort, individuals with visual impairments may use a cane, special glasses, or other aids to help them navigate the world. 

Speech/Language Impairments

Speech and language impairments are classified as communication disorders. There are a variety of reasons why someone might have one of these impairments. These types of impairments encompass conditions such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, or a voice impairment that may adversely affect a child’s educational progress.

Social/Emotional Impairments

Social/emotional impairments affect someone’s ability to maintain positive relationships and interact in social situations following expected norms. Emotional behavioral disabilities (EBD) are a result of many factors but can manifest in challenges in self-regulation, and communication.

Physical Disabilities

Physical disabilities are generally the most obvious of disabilities as they are often visible at first glance. Causes include a congenital anomaly, disease, injury, and other causes. There are a variety of assistive technologies that can support someone who lives with a physical disability. 

Learning Disabilities

There are a variety of different conditions that are classified under learning disabilities. Learning disabilities refer to conditions which can impair the ability to learn. Learning disabilities consist of but are not limited to; dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia etc. 

Hearing Loss/Deafness

A person can be born with hearing loss or have hearing loss due to physical trauma or illness. There are two major types of hearing loss – conductive and sensorineural. There is a wide spectrum of the severity of hearing loss and/or deafness.

Cognitive Differences

Cognitive differences include genetic and congenital issues along with injury created loss of cognitive function. One widely known genetic condition is Down’s Syndrome. Individuals with cognitive differences have a range of cognitive challenges from minor that you might not even notice without lengthy exposure to those that are readily seen at a glance.

Autism Spectrum

Autism is a developmental disability that usually appears during the first three years of life. It affects how a person’s brain works, but not all people with autism are affected in the same way. A person who lives with autism may have trouble with social, emotional and communication skills.

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